La concentration urbaine (urbanicité) engendre une incidence très accrue de multiples pathologies, somatiques, psychopathologiques et sociales

d'après la littérature scientifique en 2010

Dr Bernard Auriol

 

L'étude de Kelly et al., (2010) ne laisse aucun doute à ce sujet. Elle donne une synthèse édifiante des résultats acquis en introduction. La suite de l'article démontre que cet effet de la densification se manifeste aussi fortement au niveau de la schizophrénie.

Urban residence is associated with increased rates of medical illness (Godfrey and Julien, 2005) including coronary heart disease (Ahmad and Bhopal, 2005), diabetes mellitus (Papoz et al., 1996), metabolic syndrome (Gu et al., 2005), childhood asthma (Dik et al., 2004) and cancers of the esophagus, liver, cervix and female breast (Howe et al., 1993; Kelsey and Horn-Ross, 1993). Urban residence is also associated with increased rates of mental illness (Lewis and Booth, 1992), including childhood psychiatric disorders (Rutter, 1981), adult depression (Sundquist et al., 2004) and adult neurotic disorders (Vazquez Barquero et al., 1982; Blazer et al., 1991). A number of studies have suggested links between schizophrenia and urban birth (Mortensen et al., 1999), urban upbringing (Pedersen and Mortensen, 2001a) and urban residence at time of presentation (Sundquist et al., 2004).

[Brendan D. Kelly, Eadbhard O'Callaghan, John L. Waddington, Larkin Feeney,
Stephen Browne, Paul J. Scully, Mary Clarke, John F. Quinn, Orflaith McTigue,
Maria G. Morgan, Anthony Kinsella, Conall Larkin, Schizophrenia and the city: A review of literature and prospective study of psychosis and urbanicity in Ireland, Schizophrenia Research, 116 (2010) 75–89.]

McGrath J, Saha S, Welham J, El Saadi O, MacCauley C, Chant D. A systematic review of the incidence of schizophrenia: the distribution of rates and the influence of sex, urbanicity, migrant status and methodology. BMC Med. 2004;2:13.

 

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10 Mars 2011